1. Computing

Computer Architecture Basics

Understanding these fundamental concepts in computer architecture is essential to learning computer networking.

Working with Binary and Hexadecimal Numbers
Network addresses, network masks, and encryption keys all typically utilize binary and hexadecimal numbers. Learning binary and hexadecimal numbering concepts will improve your ability to set up and manage computer networks.

Binary-Decimal Number Conversion Calculator
This interactive form computes binary-to-decimal and decimal-to-binary conversions. Unlike ordinary calculators, this calculator displays step-by-step logic as a helpful teaching aid.

Bits
Bits are the smallest unit of data transfer in computer networking. Bits represent binary values like "on / off," "yes / no," and "true / false."

Bytes
A byte is a sequence of bits. In computer networking, some network protocols send and receive data in the form of byte sequences. These are called byte-oriented protocols.

What Is the Difference Between Bits and Bytes?
Both "bits" and "bytes" refer to digital data transmitted over a network connection. Both can hold network addresses or port numbers, for example. This page describes the difference between bits and bytes.

Kilobits - Megabits - Gigabits
A kilobit in computer networking represents 1000 bits of data. Much larger amounts of data can also be represented in units of megabits or gigabits. Kilobits, megabits and gigabits traveling over a computer network are typically measured per second.

Addresses
Network addresses uniquely identify the network interface of a computer or similar device. Network addressing differs from memory and other types of addressing in computer architecture.

(Computer) Ports
In computer networking, a port represents a communication channel or endpoint. Computer ports can refer to either physical or virtual connections.

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